Hepatitis B is a viral infection caused by one’s infection with the hepatitis virus B. Hepatitis B can launch the inflammation of an infected person’s liver which can lead to liver failure, hepatic cirrhosis, liver cancer or even death.
Hepatitis B virus is found in infected blood or liquids of the human body, such as semen and vaginal secretions. This is the reason why the virus can be easily transferred through blood transfusion, using infected syringes and needles in hospitals, dental clinics, through body piercing and even through manicures. Needless to say, this infection can be readily transferred through unprotected sexual contact and by the mother to the newborn during child birth.
Acute Hepatitis B presents varied symptoms. One is change of the white part of the eye to yellow; then also the skin. There would also be a change in the colour of the urine, which can become orange or brown as well as the colour of the feces.
One of the indications of Hepatitis B infection is severe and chronic exhaustion that could last for several weeks.
Still other symptoms of Hepatitis B infection could be like the symptoms of flu, joint pains, fever, vomiting, lack of appetite and fever.
The symptoms begin to appear one to six months after exposure to an infected person or object. Take note that approximately 30 percent of infected individuals do not show any symptom of being infected. Chronic hepatitis B and acute hepatitis B have similar symptoms, except that in chronic hepatitis B, the feeling of fatigue and exhaustion is more severe and the patient starts getting disoriented.
When a doctor suspects a viral B hepatitis, he or she will proceed to a full examination and a series of blood tests to establish if the hepatic functions are working right. If this virus is traced, and when the hepatitis is chronic, hepatic biopsy is recommended. This will reveal the severity of the illness. The doctor will recommend special treatment in the matter, depending on the patient’s state and the severity of the affection.
Cases of acute hepatitis B are rare. If promptly detected and treated, it can be cured in six months more or less. Some cases of acute hepatitis B can develop into chronic hepatitis. A person who has been exposed to the virus should go to the doctor at once so that she could be administered a special vaccine. The vaccine will cause the body to prep up the immune system to combat the infection. It is best for hepatitis B patient to take a lot of rest in order to speed up their recovery.
Cancer is one of the most typical causes of death in the world. There are actually various types of cancer. For example bone cancer, brain cancer, and liver cancer only to name just a few. Prostate cancer; however is a cancer characterized by the abnormal growth of cells in the prostate gland.
Prostate gland is composed the reproductive system, thus the very first thing that will occur if someone is identify with prostate cancer is the spread of cancer cells over the reproductive organ, bones, and nearby systems inside the body. Prostate cancer is classified into stages, though the worst is Stage 4 or the critical stage. What usually occurs through the critical stage? Do you know the things that the sufferer feels when he’s in critical stage?
Stage 4 of critical cancer is characterized by hot spots in the spine, ribs, skull, shoulder, and bones of the hips. The sufferer vomits a lot, and usually out of mind. Since cancer cells usually spread out, is associated as met static prostate cancer, the cancer cells from the prostate are shredding damaging identical cells toward other systems of the body including bones. We’re conscious this stage of cancer is actually difficult to cure because it is in the critical stage and might ultimately result in death.
The symptoms of prostate cancer vary for every person. It may rely on the patient’s physical status, how he is to do with it, and exactly how he manages the condition. Most people may think that if prostate cancer gets to stage 4, the sufferer didn’t focus on it, causing it to get worse. It’s a misconception. Most people, even when they have enough medications gets to this stage since the cancer cells are increasing mistakenly towards other parts of the body that can’t be cured all at ones.
Whether or not the person undergoes therapy, for example, the cancer cells reach the bones, and other organs of the body, the prostate cancer stage will continue to advance. Eventually, the patient may vomit a lot because of the reaction of his body towards the medications that’s given to him. Vomiting is one of the problems of getting stage four prostate cancer and the patient will certainly be weak.
The children have been on at you to buy them a puppy, with the usual enthusiastic promises that they will look after it and feed it, and perhaps even buy its food out of their allowances every month…With the number of unwanted pets on the rise, it’s a good idea to know what you’re getting yourself into before you find yourself ankle deep in puppies and vet bills!
The first thing that enters one’s mind when considering giving a home to a cute, cuddly animal, is that it’s going to need food, bowls for food and water, a collar and lots of toys; and you’re going to need to increase your budgeted allowance for shoes and furniture! There are other things, however, that need to be considered if you intend to be a responsible pet owner.
Things like vaccinations, deworming and sterilization:
A puppy is protected by its mother’s immune system until it is weaned – that is until it transitions from milk to solids. After that, it’s up to the pup’s owner to ensure it is protected against all the nasty diseases that could add to your veterinary expenses and ultimately result in the death of your little furry bundle of joy.
Bordetella (aka Kennel Cough) is an infectious disease not unlike bronchitis. A dog will develop a hacking cough that sounds almost as if it has something stuck in its throat. It is caused by Bordetella bronchiseptica organisms inhaled by the dog. Bordetella is most often spread in crowded areas with poor ventilation – boarding kennels, vaccination clinics etc, or close contact with an infected dog. It is an airborne virus, so your dog could pick it up just by having its daily conversation with the dog next door. Kennel Cough is rarely fatal, but young puppies are very susceptible to it, and it can easily progress to pneumonia.
Distemper is a highly contagious and very serious virus. It attacks the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems of puppies and dogs, and can also attack the nervous system. It also infects wild animals like foxes, wolves, coyotes, raccoons, ferrets and skunks. It is an airborne virus, which means dogs and puppies can contract it through contact with an infected dog or any of the wild animals already listed. Outbreaks are sporadic and are not limited to certain times of the year. All dogs are at risk, but puppies younger than four months and older dogs not vaccinated regularly, are more prone to infection. Symptoms include: a watery or pus-like eye discharge, fever, nasal discharge, coughing, lethargy, reduced appetite, vomiting and diarrhea. In later stages it affects the nervous system and can cause seizures, twitching and partial or complete paralysis. Distemper is often fatal. Even if the dog doesn’t die, it can cause lasting damage to the nervous system.
Hepatitis is a virus that is part of the adenovirus group. It is not seen in cats or humans, but can be carried and spread by foxes, bears, wolves and dogs through contact with the infected animal’s eye or nasal mucous or urine. Dogs can remain infected for up to a year after recovery. The virus attacks the liver, kidneys, eyes and linings of blood vessels throughout the body. Initial symptoms are: a cough, lethargy, loss of appetite and a mild fever. Symptoms then develop into a bluish discoloration of the cornea also known as “blue eye”. Young puppies can develop liver disease, internal bleeding and swelling of the mouth and eyes, which can cause severe shock, and death. Dogs that recover can develop cirrhosis of the liver, glaucoma and chronic kidney disease.
Parainfluenza affects the upper respiratory system. It causes a dry cough and nasal discharge, and can be misdiagnosed as kennel cough. It is spread through contact with nasal secretions from the infected animal. It can cause serious complications and even death, if pneumonia occurs.
Parvovirus is highly contagious, and very serious. It affects the gastrointestinal tract of puppies, dogs and wild canids; that is wolves, foxes, coyotes, etc, and can also affect the heart muscle of very young and unborn puppies. It is spread through direct contact with infected dogs, contaminated feces, environment or people. The virus can contaminate kennel surfaces, food and water bowls, collars and leads, and the clothing and skin of people that handle infected dogs. It is a very resilient virus, resistant to high and low temperatures and dry or damp conditions. It can survive without a host for long periods of time and is readily transferred from place to place on hair, feet, shoes, clothing and skin. All dogs are at risk, but particularly the very young and those that do not have regular vaccinations.
Symptoms include: loss of appetite, fever, vomiting and severe, sometimes bloody diarrhea. Vomiting and diarrhea lead to dehydration. Most deaths occur two to four days after clinical signs are seen.
Leptospirosis affects the liver and kidneys of all animals, and humans, and is potentially deadly. It is spread through contact with the urine of an infected animal. Symptoms include lethargy, dehydration, fevers and jaundice.
Canine Corona virus causes diarrhea in infected dogs and is spread through feces. It is similar to Parvovirus, but is considered a milder version and death from infection is not common.
Heartworm is a parasite transmitted to your puppy through mosquitoes. This potentially fatal parasite is easily prevented, but not so easily treated. Mosquitoes containing the heartworm larvae bite the dog, the larvae are injected into the blood stream, and from there, make their way to your dog’s heart. The first symptom is coughing as the parasites find their way from the heart into the lungs, by which time substantial damage has been done to the heart muscle, and so is therefore very difficult to diagnose and treat. The parasites can also affect the liver and blood vessels, and cause lung cancer.
Round worms (Ascarids) live in your dog’s intestines, feeding off food as it is digested. Symptoms include lethargy, dull coat, diarrhea, and vomiting and weight loss. They affect puppies, predominately, and can be transmitted before birth. Round worm can be transmitted to people.
Tapeworms most commonly use fleas as intermediate hosts. When licking, scratching biting an itch, the infected flea is ingested, and the worm larva develops into an adult worm, attaches itself to the wall of the gut, and feed off the host’s (your dog or puppy’s) blood. Symptoms of a heavy infestation include anemia, loss of appetite and dull coat.
Hookworm eggs usually develop into larvae in the environment. The larvae then burrow into the skin of the host and hook into the intestinal wall of the host, feeding off its blood and causing a range of severity in its symptoms from mild diarrhea, weight loss, anemia, dehydration and even death.
To prevent these diseases and infestations, your vet will set up a vaccination schedule for your puppy, generally starting with its first vaccine given in three doses.
The first dose is usually given at the age of six to eight weeks, and contains vaccines for Bordetella, Distemper, Corona virus (where of concern), Hepatitis, Parainfluenza, Parvovirus, an intestinal parasite screen, Heartworm preventive pill and strategic deworming for intestinal parasites.
The second dose is usually given at ten to twelve weeks, and contains the same as the first dose, and includes vaccines against Leptospirosis and Lyme disease (where it is of concern).
The third and final dose is usually given at fourteen to sixteen weeks and contains the same as the first and second doses, but also includes Rabies which is an incurable and fatal viral disease that affects the nervous system of almost all mammals including humans, and is spread through contact with the saliva of an infected animal. There is no cure for rabies. In some countries, the Rabies vaccine is done every year, in others, every three years.
Once these three doses are administered, the puppy then has to have annual vaccinations to keep its immunity. Like all drugs, however, immunity is not one hundred percent guaranteed. If used in conjunction with proper nutrition and good sanitary conditions, vaccinations are your pet’s best defense against disease.
On top of vaccinations, the other thing you need to decide on is sterilization. While some might consider it an unnecessary expense, sterilization is a worthwhile consideration. Not only does it go a long way to preventing ovarian cancer, breast cancer, testicular tumors and prostate problems, it also prevents unwanted litters of puppies. Neutered males tend to be less aggressive and territorial and so don’t feel the need to lift their leg on every available vertical surface! It also cuts back on roaming in both males and females.
With an estimated 220,000 American men facing down a prostate cancer diagnosis each year, it’s only natural that most would want to do everything possible to eradicate the disease. Prostate removal, radiation and other forms of treatment have been proven effective in many cases. Radiation, in particular, can be especially helpful in extending survival times for men who face higher risk forms of the disease. And, researchers are finding in some cases more radiation may be even better than standard doses recommended at the present.
Using data from the National Cancer Database, researchers from Penn Medicine took a look at the benefits of increasing the doses of external beam radiation in men with low-, medium- and high-risk forms of the disease. The results were rather eye opening.
Penn Medicine discovered that men with medium- to high-risk forms of the disease who received an incremental increase of radiation saw their mortality rates decline by 7.8 percent and 6.3 percent respectively. There was no significant decrease for men in the low-risk cancer group.
Since external beam radiation used to treat prostate cancer can have some unpleasant side effects, researchers say their findings are best applied on a case-by-case basis. Men in the higher risk and intermediate groups may indeed benefit from a life-prolonging benefit promoted by increased radiation doses. They, however, may also see their risk for incontinence, impotence and side effects rise. Men in the low risk group may want to carefully review all of their treatment options, including active surveillance, before pursuing a single course of action.
Men who are diagnosed with prostate cancer should discuss all treatment options with their healthcare providers. It is also very important for men to understand the risks associated with various treatment options and the potential rewards those options may deliver. In some cases, more, as it turns out, may indeed be more. In others, the risk of side effects may outweigh any potential benefit.
Acupuncture is a Chinese method of treatment which has been around for thousands of years and now has become popular all over the world. Most of the chronic ailments like arthritis, asthma, sciatica etc don’t have any cure in the allopathic system of medicine. At the most these medicines provide symptomatic relief. To add to this they have harmful side effects that can be injurious to the health in the long run. This is the reason that many people are turning towards alternative systems of treatment for these ailments. One of the most efficient and popular systems is Acupuncture for Kidney and other ailments. This treatment can be taken from an acupuncture specialist Mumbai.
This method of treatment involves the insertion of several super fine needles along certain points in the body. According to the basic philosophy of acupuncture there is an energy called Chi flowing at all times in the body. Sudden trauma or long held stress patterns can cause blockages or disruption in the flow of this Chi .This is when ailments of different types are caused in the body and these ailments are manifested in different ways. When the needles are inserted in the energy points the flow of this energy is normalized and the ailment gets alleviated. Many people vouch for the benefits that they have received from this method of treatment. They say that they did not just get temporary benefits but their problem was cured from the root.
The biggest benefit of this method of treatment is that there are no side effects. Then again problems like arthritis, asthma, etc that are incurable by allopathic medicines are cured by this system of treatment. In fact acupuncture for kidney is also very effective and it eradicates most of the problems occurring in the kidneys, liver, gall bladder etc. In fact acupuncture is useful in almost all the ailments known to man including cancer. The recuperation of cancer patients is said to have accelerated when they received acupuncture treatment. Hence there are a lot of benefits in taking treatment from an Acupuncture Specialist Mumbai or elsewhere.
Nowadays these specialists can be easily found on the internet as they have their own user friendly websites. You can call them and discuss your case or visit the clinic personally in order to ascertain the atmosphere and assess the skills and expertise of the specialist. You can also ask questions about the method of treatment if you are not aware of it. Some research on the internet can also answer most of your doubts and questions.
Companion Diagnostics Market Growth, Trends, Key Players, Competitive Strategies and Forecasts 2016 – 2023 – Credence Research
As stated in a latest report published by Credence Research, Inc. “Companion Diagnostics Market – (Technology Type – Polymerase Chain Reaction, Immunohistochemistry, In-situ Hybridization Test, Gene Sequencing and Others; Indication Type – Oncology, Cardiovascular Diseases, Infectious Diseases and Autoimmune Diseases): Growth, Future Prospects and Competitive Analysis, 2016-2023,” the market was valued at USD 3,717.2 Mn in 2015, and is expected to reach USD 14,453.3 Mn by 2023, expanding at a CAGR of 18.5% from 2016 to 2023.
Companion diagnostic tests are used to identify suitable patients for administering specific drugs and monitoring the prognosis of drug effects on the disease. This concept of combining a drug with a diagnostic test is known as predictive medicine or personalized medicine. A companion diagnostic test has the ability to predict the risks of the disease and monitor its therapeutic response. On the basis of technology the companion diagnostics market has been segmented into polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, In-situ hybridization test, gene sequencing and others.
Browse the full report Companion Diagnostics: Market Growth, Future Prospects and Competitive Analysis, 2016-2022 at http://www.credenceresearch.com/report/companion-diagnostics-market
The others segment includes tests such as monoclonal antibodies test and cellular immune testing. The polymerase chain reaction technique is the largest segment in the global companion diagnostics market. On the basis of indication the global companion diagnostics market has been segmented as oncology, cardiovascular diseases, virology and autoimmune diseases. The oncology segment has been further segmented on the basis of various cancers such as breast cancer, colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, lung cancer, melanoma and other cancer. The oncology segment held the largest market in the global companion diagnostics by indication and is expected to be the highest grossing segment through the forecast period. The major factors driving the oncology segment include development of majority of companion diagnostics for detection of various cancer biomarkers.
The geographical segmentation of the global companion diagnostics market comprises North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America and Middle East and Africa. In base year 2015, North America accounted for the largest market in the global companion diagnostics. In North America, the US represented the largest market for companion diagnostic tests. Asia Pacific is expected to grow at a highest rate during the forecast period due increased adoption, technological advancements, and demand for personalized medicine. the increase in the prevalence of cancer and associated disorders, the increase in healthcare expenditure, and the increase in the level of awareness among the population. Thus, the APAC region is expected to adopt companion diagnostics tests at a rapid rate during the forecast period.
The key players operating in the global companion diagnostics market include Abbott Laboratories Inc., Agilent Technologies Inc., bioMerieux SA, Qiagen N.V., Roche Holdings AG, Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc. The other notable players include Ventana Medical Systems, Myriad Genetics, Leica Microsystems and others.
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